This process involves stimulation of follicle(s) development with the help of medication, retrieving the eggs under sonography guidance, culturing eggs and sperms together under strictly controlled conditions and transferring fertilized eggs in the uterus of the woman. Pregnancy test is done approximately two weeks later. This process greatly enhances the chances of fertilization. This is a useful treatment for blocked tubes


This is an extremely valuable treatment method for treating severe male infertility, including complete absence of sperm (discussed later). Also the cases where fertilization has failed in conventional IVF cycle, ICSI may be helpful. Its main difference from conventional IVF is the method of achieving fertilization. Here a single sperm is injected into a single egg using very fine micro-manipulators under high power microscope. 


This is a simple outpatient procedure with minimal complications. The process is timed according to availability of egg in the system. It may be done in a natural cycle or in cycles where medication has been taken to ensure egg development. This is useful in cases of mild semen abnormality, ovulation dysfunction and some cases of unexplained infertility. It is not useful in cases of bilateral tubal blockage, severe sperm abnormalities or complete ovarian failure.


Absence of sperm in the semen is much commoner than previously thought. The reason for this could be either failure to produce any sperm in the testis or failure to release sperm into semen due to blockage of connecting ducts. In the latter case, sperm can be retrieved from their collection proximal to the blocked region. Even in cases of apparent non-production of sperm, some may still be found in testicular tissues. These sperms can be surgically retrieved

About Dr. Rita Modi

(MBBS, MD (Obs&Gyn), DNB (Obs&Gyn), MNAMS, FICMCH, FNB (Reproductive Medicine))

Dr. Rita Modi is a Consultant Fertility Specialist and Reproductive Endocrinologist practicing in Mumbai and Thane. She specializes in treating infertility over entire spectrum of possible interventions (Assisted Reproductive Technologies), marrying high end modern techniques with proven conventional understanding, counseling and academic knowledge. Dr. Modi has a vast experience in conceiving and implementing best practices in her field, including best laboratory practices that improve probability of success.

Fertility Process

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