Semen Analysis, Sperm Survival, and Sperm DNA fragmentation

Many couples are suffering from Infertility issues which is the most frustrating and heartbreaking condition in couple’s life. Infertility problem can find in both male and female partner but most of the infertility cases occur due to male partner. Generally male infertility is caused by low sperm production. Semen Analysis is the most crucial test to diagnose male infertility.

Dr Rita Modi is a well experienced and highly skillful in the treatment of Infertility diseases. She is an IVF specialist. Dr Rita Modi has performed lots of IVF procedures successfully.

Semen Analysis is also known as Sperm Count Test which involves the analysis of health and viability of a man’s sperms. Semen is a fluid containing sperm and it is released during ejaculation.

In Semen Analysis three major factors of sperm are measured including:

  • The number of sperm
  • The shape of the sperm
  • The movement of the sperm known as “sperm motility”


Based on the results of Semen Analysis Testing, man is given a sperm classification by using the standard terminology including:

 Normozoospermia: Normozoospermia is the presence of normal sperm in semen upon semen analysis.

Oligozoospermia: In Oligozoospermia condition, abnormally low numbers of sperms are present in a semen sample.

 Asthenozoospermia: Asthenozoospermia is the medical term for reduced sperm motility.

Teratozoospermia: This is characterized by the production of a large proportion of sperm which have morphologically abnormal forms.

Oligoasthenoteratozoospermia: OAT is the most common cause of male subfertility. It is a condition which mainly includes oligozoospermia (low number of sperm), asthenozoospermia (poor sperm movement), and teratozoospermia (abnormal sperm shape). 

Azoospermia: Azoospermia is the medical condition of a man whose semen does not contain sperms.

Aspermia: Aspermia is the condition of absence of seminal fluid and sperms upon ejaculation. 

Leucocytospermia: In Leucocytospermia condition excess white blood cells (leucocytes) are present in the semen. It has an adverse effect on fertility.

Necrozoospermia: It is a condition in which there is a low percentage of live and a high percentage of immotile spermatozoa in semen.

Semen Analysis testing is a very useful method to determine exact causes affecting men’s fertility.


The Sperm Survival test is an essential part of Intro Vitro Fertilization (IVF) treatment. Sperm survival study is very important to assess the change of male sperm motility after long term incubation. It is an advanced assessment test for male infertility issues. Sperm Survival study is very useful and cost effective step in the evaluation of abnormalities present in the man’s semen.

Procedure of Sperm Survival Study

  • The sperm sample is collected and processed in the lab.
  • Sperm count and motility are assessed before and after the processing.
  • Then sperm sample is placed in a special incubator for 24 hrs.
  • The sperm count and motility are again analyzed and compared with the original results.
  • A survival rate of at least 50% of sperm with good motility is considered as a normal or healthy sperm.

Result of Sperm Survival study

  • A normal sperm survival test result shows that the sperms are not abnormally weak.
  • An abnormal sperm survival test result shows that the presence of a significant sperm problem and need of another for testing.
  • Sperm survival study is very helpful in the determination of next treatment steps.


Good quality sperm DNA is essential for successful fertilization of partner’s egg and the healthy development of embryo. Sperm DNA Fragmentation testing is a type of male fertility test which measures the amount of damaged DNA in a sperm sample. All men already have some amount of damaged DNA in sperm but higher percentage of damaged DNA indicates difficulty in achieving pregnancy with IUI and IVF treatment.

Causes of Sperm DNA Fragmentation

  • Sperm DNA Fragmentation is mainly caused due to Oxidative stress. Other causes include:
  • Infection
  • Leucocytospermia
  • High fever
  • Increased testicular temperature
  • Varicocoele
  • Higher age
  • Obesity 
  • Poor diet
  • Drug use
  • Smoking

 Sperm DNA Fragmentation Test

Many tests are developed to measure sperm DNA damage. The Sperm Chromatin Structure Analysis (SCSA) test is the most widely used method. It involves treating sperm with a chemical dye. In this test, broken sperm DNA turns into red color while normal sperm DNA turns into green color. Then sample is passed through a computerized machine to find out ratio of green to red sperm cells for the determination of Fragmentation Index (DFI). 

Episona test is an advanced Sperm quality test. It is mainly used to find out quality of sperm. This test is ideal for the evaluation of male infertility. Episona test finds abnormalities in the sperm.

Sperm DNA Fragmentation Tests provide a reliable analysis of sperm DNA integrity which is helpful to identify men who are at risk of failing to initiate a healthy ongoing pregnancy. Information about sperm DNA integrity is also helpful in the clinical diagnosis, management and treatment of male infertility.

Dr Rita Modi’s “IVF and Fertility clinic” is a well equipped with advanced medical facilities to provide world class treatment to cure all types of Infertility diseases.